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Saturday, Oct 21st

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Bladder Cancer

Most cancers are named after the part of the body or type of cells in which they begin. About 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas, cancers that begin in the cells lining the bladder. Cancer that is confined to the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer. After treatment, superficial bladder cancer can recur, if this happens, most often it recurs as another superficial cancer. If superficial cancer is not treated it may go in the second stage. In some cases, cancer that begins in the transitional cells spreads through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscular wall of the bladder. This is known as invasive bladder cancer. Invasive cancer may grow through the bladder wall and spread to the nearby organs.

Bladder cancer cells may also be found in the lymph nodes surrounding the bladder. If the cancer has reached these nodes, it may mean that cancer cells have spread to other lymph nodes and to distant organs, such as the lungs. This is called Metastasis. The cancer cells in the new tumor are still bladder cancer cells. The new tumor is called metastatic bladder cancer rather than lung cancer because it has the same kind of abnormal cells that were found in the bladder.

Anatomy
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen. It stores urine, the waste that is produced when the kidneys filter the blood. The bladder has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger and smaller as urine is stored or emptied. The wall of the bladder is lined with several layers of cells made of transitional epithelium. The Urine produced in the Glomerular Filtrate of the kidneys passes into the bladder through two tubes called ureters. The formation of the urine is done by arterioles in the glomerular filtrate and blood pressure is directly responsible for formation of urine. Urine leaves the bladder through another tube called the urethra.

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