Cancer Support Group

Monday, Nov 20th

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Prostate Cancer Overview

Topics
  • Epidemiology & Incidence
  • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Staging
  • Treatments
Incidence
  • Most common cancer in Australian men.
  • 2001 figures: one in 11 males in NSW will develop prostate cancer by the age of 75.
  • Occurs mainly in men aged over 65 and is uncommon in men under 50.
Etiology
  • Unknown cause
  • Increased chances:
    1. As you get older – nearly two–thirds of all new prostate cancers are found in men over the age of 65
    2. If your father or brother had prostate cancer.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
  • Early prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms – too small to put pressure on urethra.
  • If cancer grows beyond the prostate (advanced P.C.) may cause:
    • Pain or burning when urinating
    • Pain during ejaculation
    • Blood in urine
    • Pain in lower back, hips or upper thighs
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  • Digital rectal examination
  • Biopsy
  • Blood Tests, Bone Scan, CT scan
Staging
  • TNM (Tumour, Nodes, Metastases)
  • Tumour
    • T1: The tumour is found only in the prostate. It cannot be felt during a digital rectal examination
    • T2: The tumour is located within the prostate only. It can be felt during a digital rectal examination
    • T3: The tumour has spread from the prostate to nearby tissues such as the seminal vesicle glands, which produce semen
    • T4: The tumour has spread beyond the prostate to the bones or lymph nodes
  • Nodes
    • N0: The cancer has not spread to any lymph nodes
    • N1–3: means the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the prostate.
  • Metastasis
    • 1a, b or c shows that the cancer has spread to the bones or other organs of the body.

Treatments for Prostate Cancer
  • Considerations:
    • Grade of tumour
    • Age
    • General health
    • Staging
    • What side effects is the patient prepared to accept
Active Surveillance
  • No immediate treatment may be recommended for when:
    • Slow growing early stage cancer
    • 70 years +
  • Rationale:
    • The side effect profile may have a greater impact on the patients life than the cancer.


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